Carmen Virginia Palau, Iban Balbastre Peralta, Juan Manzano, Benito Moreira de Azevedo, Guilherme Vieira do Bomfim


As correct measurement is an essential part of water management, this paper describes a study of the metrological behavior of a range of bulk water meters under different installation conditions. The technologies analyzed included: Woltman horizontal, Woltman vertical, and volumetric valve; single-jet, tangential and proportional meters. Configurations included: straight pipe lengths, gate and butterfly valves at different degrees of closure, rotation and distances from the meter; meter with reducing valve; inverted meter installation or rotated 90º from the horizontal setting. The metrological behavior under different flow conditions was analyzed by comparison with precision water meters (ISO 4064). The results showed significant errors in the Woltman horizontal with inverted flow together with a 75% closed and with rotated and 30º closed butterfly valve at three diameters from the meter. The vertical Woltman gave significant errors only in the reverse installation. The single-jet meter did not show any substantial errors. The tangential water meter had significant errors in the reversed installation and in almost all configurations with gate and butterfly valves. The proportional meter showed significant errors with a gate valve at any degree of closure.


Hydrometry; Water Consumption; Pressurized Irrigation

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